What are the Different Types of Jet Fuel? - Aviation Fuel Supply
What are the Different Types of Jet Fuel?
When buying jet fuel for your business, there’s no substitute for experience and legal knowledge when dealing with international transactions. Moreover, it’s important to understand what are the different types of jet fuel that exist in the market today. And at Testa International Trade Advisers, our team has plenty of knowledge to help you on your path. We are expert practitioners that deal with company’s interested in buying jet fuel for use in not only commercial activities but also military endeavors. TITA work hand in hand with interested parties seeking to buy jet fuel to ensure that they receive not only the best product but the best price as we work in the industry every day, delivering results to our clients, suppliers, refineries, and logistics teams. We believe that this level of real-world, everyday experience is what separates us from other trade consulting organizations and fuel jet wholesalers.
Many of our current clients that seek to buy jet fuel procure namely Jet A-1, that conforms to the latest version of the Jet Fuel Quality Requirements for Jointly Operated Systems (AFQRJOS). AFQRJOS contains the most rigorous requirements of the Defence Standard 91/91 and ASTM D-1655 specifications. Nevertheless, TITA also supplies Jet A, that conforms to ASTM D-1655 in the US, and other specifications of jet fuel, for example, TS-1, to other market sectors.
As you know, when looking to but jet fuel – such fuels are technoscientifically based products that are manufactured according to very stringent and controlled specifications. Nearly all clients that want to buy jet fuel are aware that jet fuels are derived from crude oil in refineries, so no matter the grade or specification of jet fuel you wish to buy, they are all produced in much the same way – and we can ensure that you get what grade you require for your business endeavours. .
Kerosene-type fuels used in civil jet today are namely JET A-1 and Jet A. The latter has a higher freezing point (maximum minus 40 degrees C instead of maximum minus 47 degrees C) and is available only in North America.
Summary of Different Types of Jet Fuels
If you wish to buy Jet A-1, then please read the following product information. Jet A-1 is a kerosene grade of fuel that is suitable for most turbine engine aircraft. Jet A-1 has a flash point minimum of 38 degrees C (100°F) and a freeze point maximum of -47 degrees C. Jet A-1 is widely available outside the U.S.A. The main specifications for Jet A-1 grade are the UK specification DEF STAN 91-91 (Jet A-1) Nato code F-35, (formerly DERD 2494), and the ASTM specification D1655 (Jet A-1).
If you wish to buy Jet A, then please read the following product information. Jet A is a kerosine grade fuel, which is usually only available in the U.S.A. Jet A has the same flash point as Jet A-1 but a higher freeze point maximum (-40°C). Jet A is supplied against the ASTM D1655 (Jet A) specification.
If you wish to buy Jet B, then please read the following product information. Jet B is a distillate covering the naphtha and kerosene fractions. Jet B can be used as an alternative to Jet A-1, nevertheless, because it is more difficult to handle (higher flammability), there is only significant demand in very cold climates where its better cold weather performance is important. ASTM has a specification for Jet B nevertheless, in Canada Jet B is supplied against the Canadian Specification CAN/CGSB 3.23
If you wish to buy TS-1, then please read the following product information. TS-1 is the main jet fuel grade available in Russian and CIS states. TS-1 is a kerosene type fuel with slightly higher volatility (flash point is 28C minimum) and lower freeze point (<-50C) compared to Jet A-1.
American Civil Jet Fuels
The basic civil jet fuel specification used in the United States of America is ASTM Specification for Jet Turbine Fuels D 1655, which defines the requirements for three grades of fuel:
Jet A, a kerosine type fuel having a maximum freeze point of -40 degrees C.
Jet A-1, a kerosine type fuel, identical with Jet A but with a maximum freeze point of -47 degrees C.
Jet B, a wide-cut type fuel.
Jet A is used within the United States by domestic and international airlines.
Today, Jet B is rarely available except in parts of northern Canada where its lower freeze point and higher volatility is an advantage for handling and cold starting.
UK Jet Fuels
Although developed basically as a military jet fuel, D. Eng RD 2494, issued by the Ministry of Defence, was adopted as the standard UK civil jet fuel. It is now renamed as DEF STAN 91-91 and defines the requirements for a kerosene type fuel (Jet A-1 grade) having a maximum freeze point of -47 degrees C.
Jet A-1 according to the DEF STAN 91-91 specification is very similar to Jet A-1 defined by the ASTM D 1655 except for a small number of areas where DEF STAN 91-91 is more stringent.
The Former Soviet Union and East European Jet Fuels
Soviet kerosene-type jet fuels are covered by a wide range of specification grades reflecting different crude sources and processing treatments used. The grade designation is T-1 to T-8, TS-1 or RT. The grades are covered either by a State Standard (GOST) number or a Technical Condition (TU) number. The limiting property values, detailed fuel composition, and test methods differ quite considerably in some cases from the Western equivalents.
The principle grade available in Russia (and members of the CIS) is TS-1.
The main differences in characteristics are that Soviet fuels have a low freeze point (equivalent to about -57 degrees C by Western test methods) but also a low flash point (a minimum of 28 degrees C compared with 38 degrees C for Western fuel). RT fuel (written as PT in Russian script) is the superior grade (a hydrotreated product) but is not produced widely. TS-1 (regular grade) is considered to be on a par with Western Jet A-1 and is approved by most aircraft manufacturers.
Eastern European countries have their own national standards with their own nomenclature. Many are very similar to the Russian standards, but others reflect the requirements of visiting international airlines and are similar to Western Jet A-1 in properties and test methods.
Understanding the different types of jet fuels are important if you wish to purchase jet fuel. If you have any questions or would like to procure jet fuel then send TITA a product query message so that a knowledgeable representative can talk with you about buying jet fuel at the best prices to meet your business needs.